The knowledge of stem cells has been around for a long time. First observed in the late 19th century, by the German pathologist Cohnheim, in cells derived from bone marrow. He hypothesised these cells could migrate through the bloodstream to sites of injury and participate in wound healing and tissue regeneration.

100 years later, mesenchymal stem cells were isolated and cultured, by Soviet scientist Friedenstein in 1966, from bone marrow. He found these cells had the ability to give rise to both bone forming and cartilage forming cells. From here, the field of stem cell research began.

In 1991 the term “Mesenchymal Stem Cells’ was coined by Caplan for their ability to differentiate into more than one cell type: osteocytes (bone forming), chondrocytes (cartilage forming), myocytes (muscle forming) and adipocytes (fat forming). Originating from the mesoderm germ layer during embryonic development, these cells give rise to connective tissues; bones, tendons, cartilage, ligaments, muscles and adipose tissue.

In the next decades Mesenchymal Stem Cells were able to be isolated from nearly all adult tissues. At the start of the century, adult adipose tissue was discovered as a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cells then became very attractive candidates for their therapeutic potential and clinical applications because they held no ethical concerns, were easy to culture and could be of autologous origin. Research began into their use as a cell based therapy for damaged cartilage and degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis. 

Mesenchymal stem cells have been shown, through this extensive research, that they possess four major clinical properties; their ability to differentiate into various cell types, their ability to home in on sites of tissue damage and inflammation, their ability to secrete bioactive molecules involved in promoting tissue repair and suppress inflammation, and their ability to perform immunomodulatory functions.

After showing therapeutic effect in animal models, clinical trials involving Mesenchymal Stem Cells began in humans in 1995. Since then over 1000 clinical trials involving Mesenchymal Stem Cells have been completed. In these clinical trials, patients treated with adipose derived stem cells have shown successful pain relief, functional improvement and cartilage regeneration. 

Regen Cellular was established in 2015 based on research and protocols from the Melbourne Stem Cell Centre. In the last 5 years osteoarthritis sports doctor, Dr Julien Freitag and musculoskeletal physician, Dr Dan Bates conducted the world's largest clinical trial using pure expanded adipose-derived MSCs for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. This trial showed significant pain relief, improved function and cartilage regeneration in osteoarthritic knee joints treated with pure expanded Mesenchymal Stem Cells. 

Regen Cellular is the first and leading clinic offering proven pure expanded Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapy to patients in New Zealand. 

Further reading and research surrounding Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapy can be found below.


List of scientific publications related to Regen Cellular and clinical outcomes for mesenchymal stem cell treatment.


Latest research from Melbourne Stem Cell Centre:

Freitag, J., Bates, D., Wickham, J., Shah, K., Huguenin, L., Tenen, A., ... & Boyd, R. (2019). Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Regenerative medicine, 14(3), 213-230


2020 Systematic reviews of Mesenchymal stem cell treatment :

Prodromos, C., Finkle, S., Rumschlag, T., & Lotus, J. (2020). Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment is Consistently Effective for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: The Results of a Systematic Review of Treatment and Comparison to a Placebo Group. Medicines, 7(8), 42.

Han, X., Yang, B., Zou, F., & Sun, J. (2020). Clinical therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose or bone marrow for knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, 9(5), 361-374.


2020 Literature reviews:

Ip, H. L., Nath, D. K., Sawleh, S. H., Kabir, M. H., & Jahan, N. (2020). Regenerative Medicine for Knee Osteoarthritis–The Efficacy and Safety of Intra-Articular Platelet-Rich Plasma and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Injections: A Literature Review. Cureus, 12(9).

Arshi, A., Petrigliano, F. A., Williams, R. J., & Jones, K. J. (2020). Stem Cell Treatment for Knee Articular Cartilage Defects and Osteoarthritis. Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine, 13(1), 20-27.


Clinical trials for Knee Osteoarthritis:

Pers, Y. M., Rackwitz, L., Ferreira, R., Pullig, O., Delfour, C., Barry, F., ... & Noël, D. (2016). Adipose mesenchymal stromal cell‐based therapy for severe osteoarthritis of the knee: A phase I dose‐escalation trial. Stem cells translational medicine, 5(7), 847-856.

Lu, L., Dai, C., Zhang, Z., Du, H., Li, S., Ye, P., ... & Song, Y. (2019). Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with intra-articular injection of autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, phase IIb clinical trial. Stem cell research & therapy, 10(1), 143.

Lee, W. S., Kim, H. J., Kim, K. I., Kim, G. B., & Jin, W. (2019). Intra‐articular injection of autologous adipose tissue‐derived mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a phase IIb, randomized, placebo‐controlled clinical trial. Stem cells translational medicine, 8(6), 504-511.

Song, Y., Du, H., Dai, C., Zhang, L., Li, S., Hunter, D. J., ... & Bao, C. (2018). Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for osteoarthritis: a pilot study with long-term follow-up and repeated injections. Regenerative medicine, 13(3), 295-307.


Clinical trials involving Hip Osteoarthritis:

Dall’Oca Carlo, B. S., Nicholas, E., Roberto, V., Elena, M. S., & Bruno, M. (2019). Mesenchymal Stem Cells injection in hip osteoarthritis: preliminary results. Acta Bio Medica: Atenei Parmensis, 90(Suppl 1), 75.

Pak, J., Lee, J. H., Jeon, J. H., & Lee, S. H. (2014). Complete resolution of avascular necrosis of the human femoral head treated with adipose tissue-derived stem cells and platelet-rich plasma. Journal of international medical research, 42(6), 1353-1362.

Mardones, R., Jofré, C. M., Tobar, L., & Minguell, J. J. (2017). Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the treatment of hip osteoarthritis. Journal of hip preservation surgery, 4(2), 159-163.

Emadedin M, Ghorbani Liastani M, Fazeli R, Mohseni F, Moghadasali R, Mardpour S et al (2015) Long-term follow-up of intra-articular injection of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in patients with knee, ankle, or hip osteoarthritis. Arch Iran Med 18:336–344


Clinical trials involving Shoulder damage:

Jo, C. H., Chai, J. W., Jeong, E. C., Oh, S., Kim, P. S., Yoon, J. Y., & Yoon, K. S. (2018). Intratendinous Injection of Autologous Adipose Tissue‐Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Rotator Cuff Disease: A First‐In‐Human Trial. Stem Cells, 36(9), 1441-1450.

Jo, C. H., Chai, J. W., Jeong, E. C., Oh, S., & Yoon, K. S. (2020). Intratendinous injection of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of rotator cuff disease: A 2-year follow-up study. Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery, 36(4), 971-980.